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Islamic Calendar, Islam Calendar, Islamic Calendar, Islam Calendar
In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
What does the Quran say about measurement of time?
[Quran - 9.36] Surely the number of months with Allah is twelve months in Allah's ordinance since the day when He created the heavens and the earth..
[Quran - 31:29] Seest thou not that Allah merges Night into Day and he merges Day into Night; that He has subjected the sun, and the moon (to his Law), each running its course for a term appointed; and that Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do?
[Quran - 103: 1..3] By (the Token of) Time (through the ages),- Verily Man is in loss, - Except such as have Faith, and do righteous deeds, and (join together) in the mutual teaching of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy.
How is an Islamic month determined:
Each month starts when the lunar crescent is first seen after a new moon.
Although new moons may be calculated quite precisely, the actual visibility of the crescent is difficult to predict. It depends on factors such as weather, the optical properties of the atmosphere, and the location of the observer. Therefore in some cases it may be difficult to give accurate information in advance about when a new month will start.
Furthermore, in some areas Muslims depend on a local sighting of the moon, whereas in other areas a universal sighting is accepted. (i.e. if a new crescent is seen anywhere in the world it is accepted for communities the world over). Both are valid Islamic practices, but they may lead to different starting days for the months.
How does one count years?
Years are counted since the Hijra, that is, Prophet Mohammed's (Peace be upon him) migration to Medina, which is assumed to have taken place 16 July C.E. 622 (Julian calendar). On that date AH 1 started (AH = Anno Hegirae = year of the Hijra).
Note that although only 2002 - 622 = 1380 years have passed in the Christian calendar, 1423 years have passed in the Islamic calendar, because its year is consistently shorter (by about 11 days) than the tropical year used by the Christian calendar.
When will the Islamic calendar overtake the Gregorian calendar?
As the year in the Islamic calendar is about 11 days shorter than the year in the Christian calendar, the Islamic years are slowly gaining in on the Christian years. But it will be many years before the two coincide. The 1st day of the 5th month of C.E. 20,874 in the Gregorian calendar will also be (approximately) the 1st day of the 5th month of AH 20,874 of the Islamic calendar!
In the Holy Quran we read:
"They ask thee about the new moons. Say, These are
means for measuring time for people's affairs and for the Pilgrimage" (Holy
Quran, Ch. 2 V. 190)
Islam has made use of both the lunar and solar system of measuring times. Where worship is to be performed in different parts of the day the solar system of reckoning time is used as in the five daily Prayers or for the beginning and breaking of the fast, and where worship is to be completed within a particular month or part thereof, the lunar system is used, as in the determination of the month or part thereof, the lunar system is used, as in the determination of the month of fasting or fixing the time of Hajj or other festivals.
To calculate conversions from one calendar year to the other the following formula is used:
G = H - ( (3 * H) / 100 ) + 622
H = G + ( ( G - 622) / 32 ) - 622
Where G = Gregorian year (AD)
H = Hijra year (AH)
Thus 2000 AD is 1421 AH
Islamic calendar consists of twelve lunar months. Each month may be of 29 or 30 days depending on the sighting of the new moon.
An lunar year has, on average, 355 days. This is 10 days less than the solar year. Hence an Islamic year is moved ahead 10 days each year in solar calendar year.
Following are the names of the Islamic months:
(1) Muharram ul Haram (2) Safar (3) Rabi-ul-Awwal (4) Rab-ul-Akhir (5) Jamadi-ul-Awwal (6) Jamadi-ul-Akhir (7) Rajab (8) Sha'aban (9) Ramadhan
(10) Shawwal (11) Dhul Qadah (12) Dhul Hijja
The Holy Quran states:
"The number of months with Allah has been twelve months by Allah's ordinance since the day He created the heavens and the earth. Of these four are known as sacred" (Holy Quran, ch., v 36)Muharram, Rajab, Dhul Qadah and Dhul Hijja are considered to be sacred months. Fighting during these sacred months is considered to be a sin.
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